Chloroquine is now uncommonly used in favor of its derivative hydroxychloroquine. In the United States, hydroxychloroquine is most often used for its anti-inflammatory effects in rheumatology and dermatology. Hydroxychloroquine dialysis Chloroquine and paludrine in pregnancy Mar 10, 2017 Hydroxychloroquine HCQ; Plaquenil is used increasingly in the management of a variety of autoimmune disorders, with well established roles in dermatology and rheumatology and emerging roles in oncology. Early retinopathy has been defined as an acquired, persistent paracentral scotoma visualized on automated visual field testing without any observable fundus changes. 1 Reports have shown that the visual loss from HCQ toxicity is less likely to be reversible once fundus changes are present. 1,2,3 Although newer testing modalities, such as spectral domain-optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescenece, and multifocal electroretinogram, are now recommended as part of screening when. The annular zone 2 to 8 degrees from fixation was useful for distinguishing the significance of scotoma points. Scotomas with more contiguous scotoma points were more often associated with retinopathy. Keywords hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, 10-2 visual field, ideal body weight, toxicity, retinopathy While early toxicity may be asymtomatic, patients with more advanced stage of toxicity may complain of color vision changes or paracentral scotomas. Its toxic effects on the retina are seen in the macula. Plaquenil retinopathy visual fields Disparity between Visual Fields and Optical Coherence., Humphrey visual field findings in hydroxychloroquine toxicity Which autoimmune not treat with plaquenil A cookie-cutter approach to dosing Plaquenil hydroxychloroquine, Sanofi-Aventis, an anti-malarial drug that has been used as a treatment for systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Despite Plaquenil dosing recommendations, retinal toxicity.. Scotoma analysis of 10-2 visual field testing with a white.. Humphrey Visual Field Findings in Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine both belong to the quinolone family and share similar clinical indications and side effects, including retinal toxicity. Chloroquine-induced retinal toxicity was first described in 1959 and the retinal toxic effects of hydroxychloroquine were later described in 1967 3, 4. Of 2361 patients who had taken hydroxychloroquine continuously for at least 5 years and who had 10-2 visual fields or SD-OCT, 177 7.5% showed clear signs of retinal toxicity. None of the primary medical indications for hydroxychloroquine therapy were significantly associated with an increased prevalence of retinal toxicity. The recent American Academy of Ophthalmology recommendations for screening for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy advised the annual use of 10-2 automated visual field testing with a white target. 1 This advice was based on the widespread use and availability of instruments that do white fields. However, some laboratories routinely use automated visual fields with a red test object, and older.